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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, DC 20549

FORM 10-Q

(Mark One)

QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the quarterly period ended March 31, 2022

OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from ______________ to ______________

Commission File Number: 001-38898

Applied Therapeutics, Inc.

(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in its Charter)

Delaware

81-3405262

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)

545 Fifth Avenue, Suite 1400

New York, New York 10017

(212) 220-9226

(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrant’s principal executive offices)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of each class

Trading Symbol

Name of each exchange on which registered

Common Stock, par value $0.0001

APLT

The Nasdaq Global Market

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer

 

  

Accelerated filer

 

Non-accelerated filer

  

  

Smaller reporting company

 

Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes      No  

As of May 11, 2022, the registrant had 26,236,931 shares of common stock, $0.0001 par value per share, outstanding.

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

Page

Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

2

PART I.

FINANCIAL INFORMATION

Item 1.

Financial Statements (Unaudited)

4

Condensed Balance Sheets

4

Condensed Statements of Operations

5

Condensed Statements of Comprehensive Loss

6

Condensed Statements of Stockholders’ Equity

7

Condensed Statements of Cash Flows

8

Notes to Condensed Financial Statements (Unaudited)

9

Item 2.

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

24

Item 3.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

35

Item 4.

Controls and Procedures

36

PART II.

OTHER INFORMATION

Item 1.

Legal Proceedings

36

Item 1A.

Risk Factors

36

Item 2.

Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities and Use of Proceeds

81

Item 3.

Defaults Upon Senior Securities

82

Item 4.

Mine Safety Disclosures

82

Item 5.

Other Information

82

Item 6.

Exhibits

82

Signatures

83

1

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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q may contain “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the federal securities laws made pursuant to the safe harbor provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 about us and our industry that involve substantial risks and uncertainties. All statements other than statements of historical facts contained in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, including statements regarding our strategy, future financial condition, future operations, projected costs, prospects, plans, objectives of management and expected market growth, are forward-looking statements. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terminology such as “aim,” “anticipate,” “assume,” “believe,” “contemplate,” “continue,” “could,” “design,” “due,” “estimate,” “expect,” “forecast,” “goal,” “intend,” “may,” “objective,” “opportunity,” “plan,” “predict,” “project”, “positioned,” “potential,” “seek,” “should,” “target,” “will,” “would” and other similar expressions that are predictions of or indicate future events and future trends, or the negative of these terms or other comparable terminology.

We have based these forward-looking statements largely on our current expectations and projections about future events and financial trends that we believe may affect our financial condition, results of operations, business strategy and financial needs. These forward-looking statements are subject to a number of known and unknown risks, uncertainties and assumptions, including risks described in the section titled “Risk Factors” in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q:

our plans to develop, market and commercialize our product candidates;
the initiation, timing, progress and results of our current and future preclinical studies and clinical trials and our research and development programs;
our ability to take advantage of expedited regulatory pathways for any of our product candidates;
our estimates regarding expenses, future revenue, capital requirements and needs for additional financing;
our ability to successfully acquire or license additional product candidates on reasonable terms and advance product candidates into, and successfully complete, clinical studies;
our ability to maintain and establish collaborations or obtain additional funding;
our ability to obtain and timing of regulatory approval of our current and future product candidates;
the anticipated indications for our product candidates, if approved;
our expectations regarding the potential market size and the rate and degree of market acceptance of such product candidates;
our ability to fund our working capital requirements and expectations regarding the sufficiency of our capital resources;
the implementation of our business model and strategic plans for our business and product candidates;
our intellectual property position and the duration of our patent rights;
developments or disputes concerning our intellectual property or other proprietary rights;
the potential impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on the timing and progress of our ongoing clinical trials, our business, results of operations, liquidity, and operations and our ability to mitigate those potential impacts;
our expectations regarding government and third-party payor coverage and reimbursement;
our ability to compete in the markets we serve;
the impact of government laws and regulations and liabilities thereunder;

2

Table of Contents

developments relating to our competitors and our industry; and
other factors that may impact our financial results.

The foregoing list of risks is not exhaustive. Other sections of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q may include additional factors that could harm our business and financial performance. Moreover, we operate in a very competitive and rapidly changing environment. New risk factors emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for our management to predict all risk factors nor can we assess the impact of all factors on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in, or implied by, any forward-looking statements.

In light of the significant uncertainties in these forward-looking statements, you should not rely upon forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. Although we believe that we have a reasonable basis for each forward-looking statement contained in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, we cannot guarantee that the future results, levels of activity, performance or events and circumstances reflected in the forward-looking statements will be achieved or occur at all. You should refer to the sections titled “Risk Factors” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” for a discussion of important factors that may cause our actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied by our forward-looking statements. Furthermore, if our forward-looking statements prove to be inaccurate, the inaccuracy may be material. Except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to publicly update any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.

Unless the context otherwise requires, the terms “Applied,” “Applied Therapeutics,” “the Company,” “we,” “us,” “our”, “the registrant” and similar references in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q refer to Applied Therapeutics, Inc.

3

Table of Contents

PART I—FINANCIAL INFORMATION

Item 1. Financial Statements.

Applied Therapeutics, Inc.

Condensed Balance Sheets

(in thousands, except share and per share data)

As of

As of

March 31, 

December 31,

2022

2021

    

(Unaudited)

    

ASSETS

 

 

CURRENT ASSETS:

 

  

 

  

Cash and cash equivalents

$

38,214

$

53,888

Investments

17,437

26,935

Prepaid expenses and other current assets

 

7,913

 

7,571

Total current assets

 

63,564

 

88,394

Operating lease right-of-use asset

1,190

1,298

Security deposits and leasehold improvements

199

200

TOTAL ASSETS

$

64,953

$

89,892

LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY

 

 

  

CURRENT LIABILITIES:

 

 

  

Current portion of operating lease liabilities

$

453

$

442

Accounts payable

5,922

9,461

Accrued expenses and other current liabilities

 

15,842

 

16,559

Total current liabilities

 

22,217

 

26,462

NONCURRENT LIABILITIES:

Noncurrent portion of operating lease liabilities

773

891

Total noncurrent liabilities

773

891

Total liabilities

 

22,990

 

27,353

STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY:

 

  

 

  

Common stock, $0.0001 par value; 100,000,000 shares authorized as of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021; 26,215,514 shares issued and outstanding as of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021

3

3

Preferred stock, par value $0.0001; 10,000,000 shares authorized as of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021; 0 shares issued and outstanding as of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021

-

-

Additional paid-in capital

 

331,476

 

328,958

Accumulated other comprehensive loss

(80)

(107)

Accumulated deficit

 

(289,436)

 

(266,315)

Total stockholders' equity

 

41,963

 

62,539

TOTAL LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY

$

64,953

$

89,892

The Notes to Condensed Financial Statements are an integral part of these statements.

4

Table of Contents

Applied Therapeutics, Inc.

Condensed Statements of Operations

(in thousands, except share and per share data)

(Unaudited)

Three Months Ended

March 31, 

    

2022

    

2021

OPERATING EXPENSES:

Research and development

$

15,030

$

14,448

General and administrative

8,071

9,751

Total operating expenses

 

23,101

24,199

LOSS FROM OPERATIONS

 

(23,101)

(24,199)

OTHER INCOME (EXPENSE), NET:

 

 

Interest income (expense), net

 

76

76

Other income (expense)

 

(96)

(56)

Total other income (expense), net

 

(20)

20

Net loss

$

(23,121)

$

(24,179)

Net loss attributable to common stockholders—basic and diluted

$

(23,121)

$

(24,179)

Net loss per share attributable to common stockholders—basic and diluted

$

(0.88)

$

(1.00)

Weighted-average common stock outstanding—basic and diluted

 

26,215,514

 

24,135,735

The Notes to Condensed Financial Statements are an integral part of these statements.

5

Table of Contents

Applied Therapeutics Inc.

Condensed Statements of Comprehensive Income (Loss)

(in thousands)

(Unaudited)

Three Months Ended

March 31, 

    

2022

    

2021

Net Loss

$

(23,121)

$

(24,179)

Other comprehensive income (loss)

 

 

Unrealized gain (loss) on marketable securities

 

27

 

(42)

Foreign currency translation adjustments

Income tax related to unrealized gain or loss on marketable securities

 

 

Other comprehensive gain (loss), net of tax

 

27

 

(42)

Comprehensive income (loss), net of tax

$

(23,094)

$

(24,221)

The Notes to Condensed Financial Statements are an integral part of these statements.

6

Table of Contents

Applied Therapeutics Inc.

Condensed Statements of Stockholders’ Equity

(in thousands, except share and per share data)

(Unaudited)

 

Common Stock

 

 

 

 

$0.0001

 

Additional

 

Accumulated Other

Total

 

Par Value

Paid-in

Accumulated

Comprehensive

Stockholders’

    

Shares

    

Amount

    

Capital

    

Deficit

    

Income (Loss)

Equity

BALANCE, January 1, 2021

22,493,661

$

2

$

242,780

$

(160,731)

$

(112)

$

81,939

Issuance of common stock upon secondary public offering, net of issuance costs of $203

3,450,000

1

74,386

74,387

Exercise of options for common stock issued under Equity Incentive Plan

37,400

67

67

Exercise of options for common stock not yet issued

(465)

(1)

(1)

Restricted Stock Unit released for common stock issued under Equity Incentive Plan

1,988

Exercise of warrants for common stock

27,855

69

69

Stock-based compensation expense

2,981

2,981

Net loss

(24,179)

(24,179)

Other comprehensive income (loss)

(42)

(42)

BALANCE, March 31, 2021

26,010,439

3

320,282

(184,910)

(154)

135,221

 

Common Stock

 

 

 

 

$0.0001

 

Additional

Accumulated Other

 

Total

 

Par Value

Paid-in

Accumulated

Comprehensive

Stockholders’

    

Shares

    

Amount

    

Capital

    

Deficit

    

Income (Loss)

    

Equity

BALANCE, January 1, 2022

26,215,514

$

3

$

328,958

$

(266,315)

$

(107)

$

62,539

Restricted Stock Unit released for common stock issued under Equity Incentive Plan

21,417

Restricted Stock Units released for common stock not yet issued

(21,417)

Stock-based compensation expense

2,077

2,077

Issuance of options in-lieu of bonus

441

441

Net loss

(23,121)

(23,121)

Other comprehensive income (loss)

27

27

BALANCE, March 31, 2022

26,215,514

$

3

$

331,476

$

(289,436)

$

(80)

$

41,963

7

Table of Contents

Applied Therapeutics, Inc.

Condensed Statements of Cash Flows

(in thousands)

(Unaudited)

Three Months Ended

March 31, 

    

2022

    

2021

OPERATING ACTIVITIES:

  

  

Net loss

$

(23,121)

$

(24,179)

Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash used in operating activities:

 

Stock-based compensation expense

 

2,077

2,981

Issuance of options in-lieu of bonus

441

Amortization of operating lease right-of-use assets

108

100

Change in operating lease liability

(106)

(97)

Changes in operating assets and liabilities:

 

Prepaid expenses

 

(1,435)

(1,573)

Accounts payable

 

(3,539)

2,835

Accrued expenses and other current liabilities

 

72

(3,270)

Amortization of insurance premium

1,093

990

Net cash used in operating activities

 

(24,410)

 

(22,213)

INVESTING ACTIVITIES:

Purchase of available-for-sale securities

(5,994)

(88,007)

Proceeds from sale of available-for-sale securities

500

Proceeds from maturities of available-for-sale securities

15,519

62,835

Net cash provided by/(used in) investing activities

9,525

(24,672)

FINANCING ACTIVITIES:

 

  

 

  

Proceeds from February Offering, net of cash issuance costs of $165

 

74,424

Repayments of short-term borrowings

(789)

(1,074)

Exercise of stock options for common stock under Equity Incentive Plan

 

67

Exercise of Warrants

69

Net cash (used in)/provided by financing activities

 

(789)

 

73,486

NET INCREASE (DECREASE) IN CASH AND CASH EQUIVALENTS

 

(15,674)

26,601

Cash and cash equivalents at beginning of period

 

53,888

57,466

Cash and cash equivalents at end of period

$

38,214

$

84,067

SUPPLEMENTAL DISCLOSURE OF CASH FLOW INFORMATION:

 

  

 

  

Unrealized gain (loss) on marketable securities

$

27

$

(42)

February Offering costs still in accrued expense

$

$

38

The Notes to Condensed Financial Statements are an integral part of these statements.

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Applied Therapeutics, Inc.

Notes to Condensed Financial Statements (Unaudited)

1. ORGANIZATION AND SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES

Operations and Business

Applied Therapeutics, Inc. (the “Company”) is a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company developing a pipeline of novel product candidates against validated molecular targets in indications of high unmet medical need. In particular, the Company is currently targeting treatments for rare metabolic diseases such as Galactosemia, Sorbitol Dehydrogenase deficiency, (“SORD” deficiency), and diabetic complications including diabetic cardiomyopathy. The Company was incorporated in Delaware on January 20, 2016 and is headquartered in New York, New York.

On January 28, 2020, the Company completed its secondary public offering (the “Secondary Public Offering”), pursuant to which it issued and sold 2,741,489 shares of common stock at a public offering price of $45.50 per share, with an additional 411,223 shares sold pursuant to the underwriters’ full exercise of their option to purchase additional shares. The aggregate net proceeds received by the Company from the offering, after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and offering costs, were $134.1 million.

On June 4, 2020, the Company filed a shelf registration statement on Form S-3 (the “Shelf Registration Statement”) under which the Company may, from time to time, sell securities in one or more offerings having an aggregate offering price of up to $300.0 million. The Shelf Registration Statement was declared effective as of June 15, 2020.

On June 12, 2020, the Company entered into an equity distribution agreement (the “Goldman Equity Distribution Agreement”) with Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC (“Goldman”), as a sales agent to sell shares of the Company’s common stock, from time to time, having an aggregate offering price of up to $100 million. Goldman may act as an agent on the Company’s behalf or purchase shares of the Company’s common stock as a principal. The Goldman Equity Distribution Agreement was terminated as of January 24, 2022.

In February 2021, the Company completed an underwritten public offering of 3,450,000 shares of common stock (the “February Offering”), including the exercise in full of the underwriters’ option to purchase 450,000 additional shares of common stock, which option closed on February 19, 2021. The shares were offered at a price to the public of $23.00 per share, resulting in aggregate net proceeds of approximately $74.4 million, after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and offering expenses.

On January 26, 2022, the Company entered into an equity distribution agreement (the “Cowen Equity Distribution Agreement) with Cowen and Company, LLC (“Cowen”), as a sales agent, to sell shares of the Company’s common stock, from time to time, having an aggregate offering price of up to $100.0 million. Pursuant to the Cowen Equity Distribution Agreement shares of our common stock may be offered and sold through the sales agent in sales deemed “at-the-market” offerings under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act. Under the Cowen Equity Distribution Agreement, the sales agent will be entitled to compensation of up to 3% of the gross offering proceeds of all shares of our common stock sold through it pursuant to the Cowen Equity Distribution Agreement. In connection with the sale of shares of our common stock on our behalf, the sales agent may be deemed to be “underwriters” within the meaning of the Securities Act, and the compensation paid to the sales agent may be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. As of March 31, 2022, the Company has not sold any shares of common stock pursuant to the Cowen Equity Distribution Agreement.

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The accompanying unaudited condensed financial statements have been prepared by the Company in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”) and, pursuant to the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) for interim financial statements. Certain information and footnote disclosures normally included in financial statements prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP have been condensed or omitted pursuant to such rules and regulations. These condensed financial statements should be read in conjunction with the Company’s audited financial statements and the notes thereto for the year ended December 31, 2021 included in the Annual Report, filed with the SEC on March 10, 2022 (the “Annual Report”).

The unaudited condensed financial statements have been prepared on the same basis as the audited financial statements. In the opinion of management, the accompanying unaudited condensed financial statements contain all adjustments which are necessary for a fair presentation of the Company’s financial position as of March 31, 2022, results of operations for the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021 and cash flows for the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021. Such adjustments are of a normal and recurring nature. The results of operations for the three months ended March 31, 2022, are not necessarily indicative of the results of operations that may be expected for the year ending December 31, 2022.

Liquidity and Going Concern

The Company has incurred, and expects to continue to incur, significant operating losses for the foreseeable future as it continues to develop its drug candidates. To date, the Company has not generated any revenue, and it does not expect to generate revenue unless and until it successfully completes development and obtains regulatory approval for one of its product candidates.

Under ASC Topic 205-40, Presentation of Financial Statements - Going Concern, management is required at each reporting period to evaluate whether there are conditions and events, considered in the aggregate, that raise substantial doubt about an entity's ability to continue as a going concern within one year after the date that the financial statements are issued. We are actively pursuing several potential financing options. While we continue to explore opportunities to raise additional equity capital in the public markets, this has proven to be challenging in the biotech sector recently. Other options for structured finance which we continue to explore include a PIPE, debt, convertible debt, and synthetic royalty financing. Synthetic royalty financing, in particular, has become a favorable option for many companies for funding ongoing clinical development in late-stage and pre-approval programs. We have engaged an investment bank and we are specifically exploring this option in the near term. Additionally, we are in active dialogue with several potential partners regarding business development opportunities related to one or more of our programs. There can be no assurances that our discussions with any of the current counterparties will be successful, and the Company expects to continue to pursue additional opportunities.

As reflected in the accompanying financial statements, the Company has a net loss of $23.1 million for the three months ended March 31, 2022 and has an accumulated deficit of $289.4 million as of March 31, 2022. The accompanying financial statements have been prepared assuming the continuation of the Company as a going concern. The Company has not yet established an ongoing source of revenues sufficient to cover its operating costs and is dependent on debt and equity financing to fund its operations. While we believe that our cash and cash equivalents and investments of $55.7 million at March 31, 2022 will be sufficient to fund our operations through year end 2022, given our planned expenditures for the next several years, we have concluded and our independent registered public accounting firm has agreed with our conclusion that there is still a substantial doubt regarding our ability to continue as a going concern.

Risks and Uncertainties

The Company is subject to risks common to companies in the biotechnology industry, including, but not limited to, risks of failure of preclinical studies and clinical trials, the need to obtain marketing approval for any product candidate that it may identify and develop, the need to successfully commercialize and gain market acceptance of its product candidates, dependence on key personnel, protection of proprietary technology, compliance with government regulations, development by competitors of technological innovations and reliance on third-party manufacturers.

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Use of Estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates.

Significant Accounting Policies

The significant accounting policies and estimates used in preparation of the condensed financial statements are described in the Company’s audited financial statements as of and for the year ended December 31, 2021, and the notes thereto, which are included in the Annual Report. There have been no material changes to the Company’s significant accounting policies during the three months ended March 31, 2022.

Recent Accounting Pronouncements

Any recent pronouncements issued by the FASB or other authoritative standards groups with future effective dates are either not applicable or are not expected to be significant to the financial statements of the Company.

2. LICENSE AGREEMENT

Columbia University

In October 2016, the Company entered into a license agreement (the “2016 Columbia Agreement”) with the Trustees of Columbia University (“Columbia University”) to obtain an exclusive royalty-bearing sublicensable license in respect to certain patents. As part of the consideration for entering into the 2016 Columbia Agreement, the Company issued to Columbia University shares equal to 5% of its outstanding common stock on a fully diluted basis at the time of issue. The common stock had a fair value of $0.5 million at the time of issuance. The Company will be required to make further payments to Columbia University of up to an aggregate of $1.3 million for the achievement of specified development and regulatory milestones, and up to an aggregate of $1.0 million for the achievement of a specified level of aggregate annual net sales, in each case in connection with products covered by the 2016 Columbia Agreement. The Company will also be required to pay tiered royalties to Columbia University in the low- to mid-single digit percentages on the Company’s, its affiliates’ and its sublicensees’ net sales of licensed products, subject to specified offsets and reductions. In addition, the Company is required to make specified annual minimum royalty payments to Columbia University, which is contingent upon the approval of the licensed products, in the mid-six figures beginning on the 10th anniversary of the effective date of the 2016 Columbia Agreement. The Company has not granted any sublicenses under the 2016 Columbia Agreement. However, if the Company sublicenses the rights granted under the 2016 Columbia Agreement to one or more third parties, it will be required to pay Columbia University a portion of the net sublicensing revenue received from such third parties, at percentages between 10% and 20%, depending on the stage of development at the time such revenue is received from such third parties.

The 2016 Columbia Agreement will terminate upon the expiration of all the Company’s royalty payment obligations in all countries. The Company may terminate the 2016 Columbia Agreement for convenience upon 90 days’ written notice to Columbia University. At its election, Columbia University may terminate the 2016 Columbia Agreement, or convert the licenses granted to the Company into non-exclusive, non-sublicensable licenses, in the case of (a) the Company’s uncured material breach upon 30 days’ written notice (which shall be extended to 90 days if the Company is diligently attempting to cure such material breach), (b) the Company’s failure to achieve the specified development and funding milestone events, or (c) the Company’s insolvency.

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In January 2019, the Company entered into a second license agreement with Columbia University (the “2019 Columbia Agreement”). Pursuant to the 2019 Columbia Agreement, Columbia University granted the Company a royalty-bearing, sublicensable license that is exclusive with respect to certain patents, and non-exclusive with respect to certain know-how, in each case to develop, manufacture and commercialize PI3k inhibitor products. The license grant is worldwide. Under the 2019 Columbia Agreement, the Company is obligated to use commercially reasonable efforts to research, discover, develop and market licensed products for commercial sale in the licensed territory, and to comply with certain obligations to meet specified development and funding milestones within defined time periods. Columbia University retains the right to conduct, and grant third parties the right to conduct, non-clinical academic research using the licensed technology; provided that such research is not funded by a commercial entity or for-profit entity or results in rights granted to a commercial or for-profit entity. As consideration for entering into the 2019 Columbia Agreement, the Company made a nominal upfront payment to Columbia University. The Company will be required to make further payments to Columbia University of up to an aggregate of $1.3 million for the achievement of specified development and regulatory milestones, and up to an aggregate of $1.0 million for the achievement of a specified level of aggregate annual net sales, in each case in connection with products covered by the 2019 Columbia Agreement. The Company will also be required to pay tiered royalties to Columbia University in the low- to mid-single digit percentages on the Company’s, its affiliates’ and its sublicensees’ net sales of licensed products, subject to specified offsets and reductions. In addition, the Company is required to make specified annual minimum royalty payments to Columbia University, which is contingent upon the approval of the licensed products, in the mid-six figures beginning on the tenth anniversary of the effective date of the 2019 Columbia Agreement.

The Company has not granted any sublicenses under the 2019 Columbia Agreement. However, if the Company sublicenses the rights granted under the 2019 Columbia Agreement to one or more third parties, it will be required to pay Columbia University a portion of the net sublicensing revenue received from such third parties, at percentages between 10% and 50%, depending on the stage of development at the time such revenue is received from such third parties. The 2019 Columbia Agreement will terminate upon the expiration of all the Company’s royalty payment obligations in all countries. The Company may terminate the 2019 Columbia Agreement for convenience upon 90 days’ written notice to Columbia University. At its election, Columbia University may terminate the 2019 Columbia Agreement, or convert the licenses granted to the Company into non-exclusive, non-sublicensable licenses, in the case of (a) the Company’s uncured material breach upon 30 days’ written notice (which shall be extended to 90 days if the Company is diligently attempting to cure such material breach), (b) the Company’s failure to achieve the specified development and funding milestone events, or (c) the Company’s insolvency.

In March 2019, and in connection with the 2016 Columbia Agreement, the Company entered into a research services agreement (the “2019 Columbia Research Agreement”) with Columbia University with the purpose of analyzing structural and functional changes in brain tissue in an animal model of Galactosemia, and the effects of certain compounds whose intellectual property rights were licensed to the Company as part of the 2016 Columbia Agreement on any such structural and functional changes. The 2019 Columbia Research Agreement had a term of 12 months from its effective date and expired in accordance with its terms.

On October 3, 2019, and in connection with the 2019 Columbia Agreement, the Company entered into a research services agreement (the “PI3k Columbia Research Agreement” and collectively with the 2016 Columbia Agreement, 2019 Columbia Agreement and 2019 Columbia Research Agreement, the “Columbia Agreements”) with Columbia University with the purpose of analyzing PI3k inhibitors for the treatment of lymphoid malignancies. The PI3k Columbia Research Agreement had a term of 18 months from its effective date and expired in accordance with its terms.

During the three months ended March 31, 2022, the Company recorded $0 and $13,000 in research and development expense and general and administrative expense, respectively, related to the Columbia Agreements. During the three months ended March 31, 2021, the Company recorded $0 in research and development expense and $32,000 in general and administrative expense, respectively, related to the Columbia Agreements. In aggregate, the Company has incurred $2.5 million in expense from the execution of the Columbia Agreements through March 31, 2022.

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As of March 31, 2022, the Company had $36,000 due to Columbia University included in accrued expenses and $0 included in accounts payable. As of December 31, 2021, the Company had $12,000 due to Columbia University included in accrued expenses and $0.1 million included in accounts payable.

University of Miami

2020 Miami License Agreement

On October 28, 2020, the Company entered into a license agreement with the University of Miami (the “2020 Miami License Agreement”) relating to certain technology that is co-owned by the University of Miami (UM), the University of Rochester (UR) and University College London (UCL). UM was granted an exclusive agency from UR and UCL to license each of their rights in the technology. Pursuant to the 2020 Miami License Agreement, UM, on behalf of itself and UR and UCL, granted the Company a royalty-bearing, sublicensable license that is exclusive with respect to certain patent applications and patents that may grant from the applications, and non-exclusive with respect to certain know-how, in each case to research, develop, make, have made, use, sell and import products for use in treating and/or detecting certain inherited neuropathies, in particular those caused by mutation in the sorbitol dehydrogenase (SORD) gene. The license grant is worldwide. Under the 2020 Miami License Agreement, the Company is obligated to use commercially reasonable efforts to develop, manufacture, market and sell licensed products in the licensed territory, and to comply with certain obligations to meet specified development milestones within defined time periods. UM retains for itself, UR, and UCL the right to use the licensed patent rights and licensed technology for their internal non-commercial educational, research and clinical patient care purposes, including in sponsored research and collaboration with commercial entities.

Under the terms of the 2020 Miami License Agreement, the Company was obligated to pay UM an up-front non-refundable license fee of $1.1 million, and a second non-refundable license fee of $0.5 million due on the first anniversary of the date of the license. The Company will be required to make further payments to UM of up to an aggregate $2.2 million for the achievement of specified patenting and development milestones, and up to an aggregate of $4.1 million for achievement of late stage regulatory milestones. The Company will also be required to pay royalties ranging from 0.88% - 5% on the Company’s, the Company’s affiliates’ and the Company’s sublicensees’ net sales of licensed products. If the Company sublicenses the rights granted under the 2020 Miami License Agreement to one or more third parties, the Company will be required to pay to UM a portion of the non-royalty sublicensing revenue received from such third parties ranging from 15% – 25%.

The 2020 Miami License Agreement terminates upon the later of the expiration of all issued patents and filed patent applications or 10 years after the first commercial sale of the last product or process for which a royalty is due, unless earlier terminated. In addition, the 2020 Miami License Agreement may be terminated by the Company at any time upon 60 days prior written notice to UM, and may be terminated by either the Company or UM upon material breach of an obligation if action to cure the breach is not initiated within 60 days of receipt of written notice.

During each of the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021 the Company recorded $25,000 in research and development expense related to the 2020 Miami License Agreement. In aggregate, the Company has incurred $2.3 million in expense from execution of the 2020 Miami License Agreement through March 31, 2022.

The Company had $0.3 million and $0.3 million due to UM included in accrued expenses as of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, respectively, relating to the 2020 Miami License Agreement.

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2020 Miami Option Agreement

On October 28, 2020, the Company entered into an option agreement with the University of Miami (the “2020 Miami Option Agreement”) concerning certain research activities and technology relating to SORD neuropathy that may be pursued and developed by UM. Under the 2020 Miami Option Agreement, if UM conducts such research activities, then UM is obligated to grant the Company certain option rights to access and use the research results and to obtain licenses to any associated patent rights upon the Company making specified payments to UM within specified time limits. If the Company elects to obtain option rights the Company will be required to make payments to UM in the low-six figures to the low-seven figures, depending upon the rights the Company elects to obtain, and the Company will be obligated to make certain milestone payments in the high-six figures to mid-seven figures if UM conducts and completes certain research activities within specified time periods and the Company elects to receive rights to use the results of that research.

2020 Miami Sponsored Research Agreement

On December 14, 2020, the Company entered into a research agreement with the University of Miami (the “2020 Miami Research Agreement”), under which the University of Miami will conduct a research study relating to SORD neuropathy and deliver a final report on the study to the Company. The term of the research agreement is from December 14, 2020 through December 30, 2021, and was extended through May 31, 2022. The total consideration for the 2020 Miami Research Agreement was $0.3 million.

During the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021, the Company recorded $37,000 and $67,000, respectively, in research and development expense in relation to the 2020 Miami Research Agreement. The Company had $0.1 million and $0.2 million as of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, respectively, in accrued expense in relation to the 2020 Miami Research Agreement.

Bayh-Dole Act

Some of the intellectual property rights the Company has licensed, including certain rights licensed in the agreements described above, may have been generated through the use of U.S. government funding. As a result, the U.S. government may have certain rights to intellectual property embodied in the Company’s current or future product candidates under the Bayh-Dole Act of 1980, or Bayh-Dole Act, including the grant to the government of a non-exclusive, worldwide, freedom to operate license under any patents, and the requirement, absent a waiver, to manufacture products substantially in the United States.  To the extent any of the Company’s current or future intellectual property is generated through the use of U.S. government funding, the provisions of the Bayh-Dole Act may similarly apply.

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3. FAIR VALUE MEASUREMENTS

The following tables summarize, as of March 31, 2022, the Company’s financial assets and liabilities that are measured at fair value on a recurring basis, according to the fair value hierarchy described in the significant accounting policies in the Company’s audited financial statements as of and for the year ended December 31, 2021, and the notes thereto, which are included in the Annual Report.

As of March 31, 2022

(in thousands)

Level 1

Level 2

Level 3

Total

Cash

$

3,991

$

$

$

3,991

Money market funds

34,223

34,223

Total cash and cash equivalents

$

38,214

$

$

$

38,214

U.S. government agency debt securities

17,437

17,437

Total marketable securities

$

$

17,437

$

$

17,437

Total financial assets measured at fair value on a recurring basis

$

38,214

$

17,437

$

$

55,651

Investments in U.S. government agency debt securities have been classified as Level 2 as they are valued using quoted prices in less active markets or other directly or indirectly observable inputs. Fair values of U.S. government agency debt securities were derived from a consensus or weighted average price based on input of market prices from multiple sources at each reporting period. During the period ended March 31, 2022, there were no transfers of financial assets between Level 1 and Level 2.

4. INVESTMENTS

Marketable Securities

Marketable securities, which the Company classifies as available-for-sale securities, primarily consist of U.S. government debt obligations. Marketable securities with remaining effective maturities of twelve months or less from the balance sheet date are classified as short-term; otherwise, they are classified as long-term on the balance sheets.

The following tables provide the Company’s marketable securities by security type (in thousands):

As of March 31, 2022

As of December 31, 2021

Gross

Gross

 

Gross

Gross

 

    

Unrealized

    

Unrealized

    

Estimated

    

    

Unrealized

    

Unrealized

    

Estimated

(in thousands)

Cost

Gains

Losses

Fair Value

Cost

Gains

Losses

Fair Value

US government agency debt security

$

17,518

$

1

$

(82)

$

17,437

$

27,042

$

1

$

(108)

$

26,935

Total

$

17,518

$

1

$

(82)

$

17,437

$

27,042

$

1

$

(108)

$

26,935

As of March 31, 2022, the Company’s investment portfolio reported an unrealized loss of $0.1 million. Based on its evaluations, the Company determined that a credit loss allowance is not required since the decline was not related to underlying credit issues of the counterparties. The counterparties to these investments have high credit quality with investment grade ratings of at least AA+ or above, along with a history of no defaults. No single investment in the portfolio had an individually material unrealized loss and in the aggregate. The total amount of unrealized losses of $0.1 million as of March 31, 2022 was only 0.47% of the total amortized costs basis of the investment portfolio. In addition, the Company does not intend to sell these investments and it is not more likely than not that the Company will be required to sell these investments before recovery of their amortized cost bases. Accordingly, based on the foregoing evaluation, the Company did not record any credit losses during the three months ended March 31, 2022 and the entire amount of the decline in fair value below the amortized cost basis was recorded as an unrealized loss, net of tax, in other comprehensive loss in the Statements of Comprehensive Loss. Unrealized gains are also reflected, net of tax, as other comprehensive income (loss) in the Statements of Comprehensive Loss.

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Contractual maturities of the Company’s marketable securities are summarized as follows:

As of March 31, 2022

As of December 31, 2021

Gross

Gross

 

Gross

Gross

 

Unrealized

Unrealized

    

Estimated

Unrealized

Unrealized

    

Estimated

(in thousands)

Cost

    

Gains

    

Losses

    

Fair Value

    

Cost

    

Gains

    

Losses

    

Fair Value

Due in one year or less

$

17,518

$

1

$

(82)

$

17,437

$

27,042

$

1

$

(108)

$

26,935

Due in one through two years

Total

$

17,518

$

1

  

$

(82)

$

17,437

$

27,042

$

1

  

$

(108)

$

26,935

At March 31, 2022, the Company had $1,000 of gross unrealized gains and $0.1 million of gross unrealized losses primarily due to fluctuations in the fair value of certain U.S. government agency debt securities.

During the three months ended March 31, 2022, the Company recorded gross realized losses of $80,000 and no gross realized gains of from the sale of marketable securities.

The unrealized losses and fair values of available-for-sale securities that have been in an unrealized loss position for a period of less than and greater than 12 months as of March 31, 2022 are as follows:

As of March 31, 2022

Securities in an unrealized loss position less than 12 months

Securities in an unrealized loss position greater than 12 months

Total

Unrealized

    

Estimated

    

Unrealized

    

Estimated

    

Unrealized

    

Estimated

(in thousands)

Losses

Fair Value

Losses

Fair Value

Losses

Fair Value

US government agency debt security

$

(82)

$

14,438

$

$

$

(82)

$

14,438

Total

$

(82)

$

14,438

$

$

$

(82)

$

14,438

The unrealized losses and fair values of available-for-sale securities that have been in an unrealized loss position for a period of less than and greater than 12 months as of December 31, 2021 are as follows:

As of December 31, 2021

Securities in an unrealized loss position less than 12 months

Securities in an unrealized loss position greater than 12 months

Total

Unrealized

    

Estimated

    

Unrealized

    

Estimated

    

Unrealized

    

Estimated

(in thousands)

Losses

Fair Value

Losses

Fair Value

Losses

Fair Value

US government agency debt security

$

(108)

$

17,696

$

$

$

(108)

$

17,696

Total

$

(108)

$

17,696

$

$

$

(108)

$

17,696

5. PREPAID EXPENSES AND OTHER CURRENT ASSETS

Prepaid expenses and other current assets consisted of the following:

    

March 31, 

    

December 31,

(in thousands)

2022

2021

Prepaid research and development expenses

$

5,837

$

4,483

Insurance premium asset

522

1,616

Prepaid rent expenses

 

125

 

117

Prepaid insurance expenses

 

99

 

105

Prepaid commercial and patient advocacy

383

254

Research and development tax credit receivable

 

469

 

502

Interest receivable

23

23

Other prepaid expenses and current assets

455

471

Total prepaid expenses & other current assets

$

7,913

$

7,571

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6. ACCRUED EXPENSES AND OTHER CURRENT LIABILITIES

Accrued expenses and other current liabilities consisted of the following:

    

March 31, 

    

December 31,

(in thousands)

2022

2021

Accrued pre-clinical and clinical expenses

$

12,217

$

9,912

Short-term insurance financing note

789

Accrued professional fees

 

533

 

419

Accrued compensation and benefits

 

707

 

2,779

Accrued commercial expenses

1,355

1,394

Accrued patent expenses

 

328

 

279

Other

 

702

 

987

Total accrued expenses & other current liabilities

$

15,842

$

16,559

7. STOCK-BASED COMPENSATION

Equity Incentive Plans

In May 2019, the Company’s board of directors (the “Board”) adopted its 2019 Equity Incentive Plan (“2019 Plan”), which was subsequently approved by its stockholders and became effective on May 13, 2019. As a result, no additional awards under the Company’s 2016 Equity Incentive Plan, as amended (the “2016 Plan”) will be granted and all outstanding stock awards granted under the 2016 Plan that are repurchased, forfeited, expired, or are cancelled will become available for grant under the 2019 Plan in accordance with its terms. The 2016 Plan will continue to govern outstanding equity awards granted thereunder.

The 2019 Plan provides for the issuance of incentive stock options (“ISOs”) to employees, and for the grant of nonstatutory stock options, stock appreciation rights, restricted stock awards, restricted stock unit awards, performance stock awards, performance cash awards and other forms of stock awards to the Company’s employees, officers, and directors, as well as non- employees, consultants, and affiliates to the Company. Under the terms of the 2019 Plan, stock options may not be granted at an exercise price less than fair market value of the Company’s common stock on the date of the grant. The 2019 Plan is administered by the Compensation Committee of the Company’s Board.

Initially, subject to adjustments as provided in the 2019 Plan, the maximum number of the Company’s common stock that may be issued under the 2019 Plan was 4,530,000 shares, which is the sum of (i) 1,618,841 new shares, plus (ii) the number of shares (not to exceed 2,911,159 shares) that remained available for the issuance of awards under the 2016 Plan, at the time the 2019 Plan became effective, and (iii) any shares subject to outstanding stock options or other stock awards granted under the 2016 Plan that are forfeited, expired, or reacquired. The 2019 Plan provides that the number of shares reserved and available for issuance under the 2019 Plan will automatically increase each January 1, beginning on January 1, 2020, by 5% of the outstanding number of shares of common stock on the immediately preceding December 31 or such lesser number of shares as determined by the Board. Subject to certain changes in capitalization of the Company, the aggregate maximum number of shares of common stock that may be issued pursuant to the exercise of ISOs shall be equal to 13,000,000 shares of common stock. Stock options awarded under the 2019 Plan expire 10 years after grant and typically vest over four years.

As of March 31, 2022, there were 1,379,543 shares of common stock available for issuance under the 2019 Plan.

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Stock-Based Compensation Expense

Total stock-based compensation expense recorded for employees, directors and non-employees (in thousands):

Three Months Ended

March 31, 

(in thousands)

    

2022

    

2021

Research and development

$

856

$

799

General and administrative

 

1,221

 

2,182

Total stock-based compensation expense

$

2,077

$

2,981

Stock Option Activity

During the three months ended March 31, 2022 the Company granted 400,416 options to shares of common stock. For the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021, amortization of stock compensation of options amounted to $2.0 million and $2.5 million, respectively. As of March 31, 2022 and 2021, the total unrecognized stock-based compensation balance for unvested options was $13.0 million and $22.7 million, respectively, which is expected to be recognized over 2.4 years and 2.9 years, respectively. The weighted-average fair value per share of options granted during the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021 was $2.22 and zero, respectively.

The following table summarizes the information about options outstanding at March 31, 2022:

    

    

    

Weighted-Average

    

 

 

Weighted-

 

Remaining

 

Aggregate

Options

 

Average

 

Contractual

 

Intrinsic

(in thousands, except for share data)

Outstanding

Exercise Price

 

Term (in years)

Value

Outstanding at December 31, 2021

 

4,704,888

$

13.29

7.7

$

10,305

Options granted

 

400,416

3.68

Options exercised

 

-

Forfeited

 

(248,222)

27.73

Expired

 

(5,517)

23.15

Outstanding at March 31, 2022

 

4,851,565

$

11.74

7.4

$

489

Exercisable at March 31, 2022

 

3,577,835

$

9.81

7.0

$

489

Nonvested at March 31, 2022

 

1,273,730

$

17.17

8.5

$

Valuation of Stock Options Granted to Employees that Contain Service Conditions Only

The fair value of each option award granted with service-based vesting is estimated on the date of the grant using the Black-Scholes option valuation model based on the weighted average assumptions noted in the table below for those options granted in the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021.

Three Months Ended

 

March 31, 

    

2022

 

2021

Expected term (in years)

5.5

Volatility

 

69.68

%

%

Risk-free interest rate

 

1.56

%

%

Dividend yield

%

%

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Restricted Stock Unit Activity

During the three months ended March 31, 2022, the Company granted 248,700 RSUs to shares of common stock. For the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021, amortization of stock compensation of RSUs amounted to $0.1 million and $0.5 million, respectively. As of March 31, 2022 and 2021, the unamortized compensation costs associated with non-vested restricted stock awards were $5.4 million and $5.9 million, respectively, with a weighted-average remaining amortization period of 3.4 and 3.2 years, respectively.

The following table summarizes the information about restricted stock units outstanding at March 31, 2022:

 

 

Weighted-Average

 

 

Grant Date

 

Aggregate

(in thousands, except for share data)

Shares

 

Fair Value

Intrinsic Value

Outstanding at December 31, 2021

 

469,485

$

18.05

$

4,202

Awarded

 

248,700

4.17

Released

 

(21,417)

25.69

Forfeited

 

(145,300)

19.48

Outstanding at March 31, 2022

 

551,468

$

11.12

$

1,164

Nonvested at March 31, 2022

 

551,468

$

11.12

$

1,164

Weighted Average Remaining Recognition Period (in years)

3.4

2019 Employee Stock Purchase Plan

In May 2019, the Company’s Board and its stockholders approved the 2019 Employee Stock Purchase Plan (the “ESPP”), which became effective as of May 13, 2019. The ESPP is intended to qualify as an “employee stock purchase plan” within the meaning of Section 423 of the U.S. Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended. The number of shares of common stock initially reserved for issuance under the ESPP was 180,000 shares. The ESPP provides for an annual increase on the first day of each year beginning in 2020 and ending in 2029, in each case subject to the approval of the Board, equal to the lesser of (i) 1% of the shares of common stock outstanding on the last day of the calendar month before the date of the automatic increase and (ii) 360,000 shares; provided that prior to the date of any such increase, the Board may determine that such increase will be less than the amount set forth in clauses (i) and (ii). As of March 31, 2022, no shares of common stock had been issued under the ESPP. The first offering period has not yet been decided by the Board.

8. STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY

As of March 31, 2022, and December 31, 2021, the authorized capital stock of the Company consists of 100,000,000 shares of common stock, par value $0.0001 per share and 10,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.0001 per share.

Common Stock

Goldman Equity Distribution Agreement

In June 2020, the Company entered into the Goldman Equity Distribution Agreement to sell shares of the Company’s common stock, from time to time, having an aggregate offering price of up to $100.0 million. The issuance and sale of shares of common stock by the Company pursuant to the Goldman Equity Distribution Agreement is deemed an “at-the-market” offering under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act. Goldman is entitled to compensation for its services equal to up to 3.0% of the gross offering proceeds of all shares of the Company’s common stock sold through it as a sales agent pursuant to the Goldman Equity Distribution Agreement. The Goldman Equity Distribution Agreement was terminated as of January 24, 2022.

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Cowen Equity Distribution Agreement

On January 26, 2022, the Company entered into the Cowen Equity Distribution Agreement to sell shares of the Company’s common stock, from time to time, having an aggregate offering price of up to $100.0 million. Pursuant to the Cowen Equity Distribution Agreement shares of our common stock may be offered and sold through the sales agent in sales deemed “at-the-market” offerings under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act. Under the Cowen Equity Distribution Agreement, the sales agent will be entitled to compensation of up to 3% of the gross offering proceeds of all shares of our common stock sold through it pursuant to the Cowen Equity Distribution Agreement. In connection with the sale of shares of our common stock on our behalf, the sales agent may be deemed to be “underwriters” within the meaning of the Securities Act, and the compensation paid to the sales agent may be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. As of March 31, 2022, the Company has not sold any shares of common stock pursuant to the Cowen Equity Distribution Agreement.

9. WARRANTS

Warrants Issued with Series A Preferred Stock

On January 26, 2017, in connection with the sale and issuance of the Series A Preferred Stock, the Company issued equity-classified warrants to purchase 309,389 shares of common stock (the “2017 Warrants”), valued at $0.2 million, and included in the issuance costs of the Series A Preferred Stock. The warrants vested immediately and have an exercise price of $2.49 per share and expire on March 13, 2027.

The fair value of warrants issued is estimated using the Black-Scholes option pricing model with the following assumptions for the 2017 Warrants.

Contractual term (in years)

    

10.0

 

Volatility

 

74.48

%

Risk-free interest rate

 

3.20

%

Dividend yield

 

0.00

%

On February 5, 2021, a warrantholder exercised 27,855 warrants on a cash basis and received 27,855 shares of common stock. The Company received $69,000 in cash proceeds for the exercise of these warrants.

Warrants Issued with the 2018 Notes

On January 18, 2018, the Company entered into a placement agent agreement through which it became obligated to issue common stock warrants in connection with the issuance of convertible promissory notes, issued on February 5, 2018 (the “2018 Notes”). The obligation to issue the 2018 Notes Warrants was recorded as a liability at its fair value, (see Note 3), which was initially $0.1 million, and was included in the issuance costs of the 2018 Notes. On November 5, 2018, in connection with the extinguishment of the 2018 Notes into shares of Series B Preferred Stock, the Company issued the 2018 Notes Warrants, which were equity-classified warrants upon issuance, to purchase 76,847 shares of common stock, valued at $0.3 million. The 2018 Notes Warrants vested immediately upon issuance and have an exercise price of $6.59 per share and expire on November 4, 2028.

Warrants Issued with Series B Preferred Stock

In November and December 2018, in connection with the sale and issuance of the Series B Preferred Stock, the Company was obligated to issue equity-classified warrants to purchase 72,261 shares of common stock (collectively the “2018 Warrants”), valued in the aggregate at $0.2 million, which was included in the issuance costs for the Series B Preferred Stock. The warrants vest immediately upon issuance, have an exercise price of $8.24 per share and expire 10 years from the date of issuance.

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The fair value of the 2018 Warrants was estimated using the Black-Scholes option pricing model with the following assumptions:

Contractual term (in years)

    

10.0

 

Volatility

 

73.22

%

Risk-free interest rate

 

2.70

%

Dividend yield

 

0.00

%

In February 2019, in connection with the sale and issuance of the Series B Preferred Stock, the Company was obligated to issue warrants to purchase 23,867 shares of common stock (collectively the “2019 Warrants”), valued in the aggregate at $0.1 million, which was included in the issuance costs for the Series B Preferred Stock. The warrants vested immediately upon issuance, have an exercise price of $8.24 per share and expire 10 years from the date of issuance.

The fair value of the 2019 Warrants was estimated using the Black-Scholes option pricing model with the following assumptions:

Contractual term (in years)

    

10.0

 

Volatility

 

73.22

%

Risk-free interest rate

 

2.70

%

Dividend yield

 

0.00

%

The inputs utilized by management to value the warrants are highly subjective. The assumptions used in calculating the fair value of the warrants represent the Company’s best estimates, but these estimates involve inherent uncertainties and the application of management judgment. As a result, if factors change and the Company uses different assumptions, the fair value of the warrants may be materially different in the future.

A summary of the Company’s outstanding common stock warrants as of March 31, 2022 is as follows:

Warrants

Outstanding as of December 31, 2021

125,618

Warrants granted and issued

 

Warrants exercised

 

Warrants exchanged

 

Balance as of March 31, 2022

125,618

10. LEASES

The following table summarizes the Company’s lease related costs for the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021: